This table demonstrates that due to the Clean Heat Program, the levels of indoor black carbon in New York City rose in follow-up, however, the differences between figures are not statistically significant (Gould, et al., 2018). At the same time, in contrast, the levels of outdoor black carbon fell in follow-up, especially in buildings converted to cleaner fuels instead of dirtier fuels (Gould, et al., 2018). In addition, lower floor apartments reportedly have higher indoor black carbon levels in comparison with upper floor apartments. In general, these figures demonstrate the positive impact of the Clean Heat Program on the city’s air quality.
This table demonstrates the annual reduction of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2) in New York City up to 2012 due to the implementation of multiple sustainable programs, including the Clean Heat Program, aimed to reduce the level of air pollution. On the basis of these results, it is possible to conclude that the implementation of the Clean Heat Program may be defined as successful.
Unlike the majority of cities all over the world, New York City may be characterized by excessive air pollution from institutional, commercial, and residential heating systems. Burning oils used for heating are regarded as more harmful for the environment in comparison with cleaner fuel sources due to the higher concentrations of metals, sulfur, and other contaminants (Gould, et al., 2018). That is why, air pollution in New York City “exhibits temporal and geographic variability in emission rates, with increases during the wintertime heating season and increased pollution associated with residual fuel boiler density” (Gould, et al., 2018, p. 2). The initiatives of the Clean Heat Program proved to be considered successful, limited the use of harmful substances for heating purposes, and reduced the concentration of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2) in the city (Hernández, 2016). In general, the results of the research may be used for the subsequent examination of air quality in other regions of the United States. The study may be regarded as considerably detailed and comprehensive. The monitoring of air quality is highly essential as polluted air generally has a highly negative impact on human health. Information related to air quality monitored by satellites on the governmental level may be individually gathered through various online platforms.
Gould, C. F., Chillrud, S. N., Phillips, D., Perzanowski, M. S., & Hernández, D. (2018). Soot and the city: Evaluating the impacts of Clean Heat policies on indoor/outdoor air quality in New York City apartments. PLoS ONE, 13(6), 1-17. Web.
Hernández, D. (2016). Clean Heat: A technical response to policy innovation. Cityscape, 18(3), 277-282.