Autonomy versus doubt is the second stage of development based on Erikson’s perspective. The stage allows children to develop independent skills and higher self-esteem. It involves the process of discovering children’s abilities in different activities. Parenting styles determine whether the stage will take place effectively or fail (Bahrami et al., 2017). Authoritarian parenting style limits the success of the stage since parents follow strict rules and guidelines for their children (Brierley, 2019). Authoritarian parenting style develops fear among children due to punishment they will undergo after making mistakes. Therefore, children are limited from discovering their abilities and talents (Brierley, 2019). Authoritative parenting styles develop trust between parents as children have freedom to discover their abilities.
Initiative versus guilt stage marks the beginning of children developing of social interaction skills with their agemates. Children at this stage tend to be aggressive in discovering new things (Degges-White, 2017). They develop games and interact happily with others in the school setting. Therefore, parenting styles will determine whether children will be initiative or guilty. Authoritarian parenting styles make children feel guilt since they adhere to rules parents believe to be right. Whenever they see other children trying to discover new activities, they will tend to adhere to parents’ rules and regulations (Wood & Kennison, 2017). Authoritative parenting style supports initiative activities among children since parents trust their children and correct their mistakes.
Bahrami, B., Dolatshahi, B., Pourshahbaz, A., & Mohammadkhani, P. (2017). Determinants of authoritative parenting style in Iranian mothers. Iranian Rehabilitation Journal, 15(4), 317-324.
Brierley, S. S. (2019). An introduction to psychology. Routledge.
Degges-White, S. (2017). Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development. In W. K. Killam, & S. Degges-White (Eds.), College Student Development: Applying Theory to Practice on the Diverse Campus. Springer.
Wood, E. E., & Kennison, S. M. (2017). Young children’s risk-taking: Mothers’ authoritarian parenting predicts risk-taking by daughters but not sons. Child Development Research. Web.