Abortion is defined as the ending of pregnancy or removal of foetus or embryo before the foetus is born. Termination of pregnancy involves inducement of pregnancy, which destructs the growth of embryo or foetus and therefore, abortion results in death of the foetus or embryo. It is one of the most contested topic worldwide, and the debate is about misinformation about the truth effect (Lu, 2017).
Explanation of Abortion: Proponent Argument
It is important to note that abortion is objected due to religious and moral reasons, where the considerations in regards to the given process conclude that it as a cruel termination of a viable life. The institution that relates to the topic involve legal ones and healthcare. For example, legal matters revolve around whether or not an embryo has human rights. Healthcare matters primarily focus on a mother’s health due to pregnancy and giving birth. In real life, the topic is predominant in politics, where parties argue whether states need to ban abortion or make it more accessible.
Explanation of Abortion
Currently, in the United States, the practice of abortion is legal, and therefore, there is at least one abortion clinic in every state. There were attempts to criminalize abortion by states, such as Louisiana and Texas. In 1973, the US Supreme Court made a ruling, which legalized an abortion. It is a landmark ruling of Roe V. Wade case (Blackmun,1976).
Explanation of Abortion: Pro-life Argument
In order to comprehensively assess the given issue, it is important to point out that pro-life applies the biblical concept and, therefore, states that a life cannot be taken away by anyone. Pro-life movement and activists based on the notion that life begins with a conception of a zygote, from which, an embryo develops, which is an early stage of human body development. Therefore, abortion causes a destruction of embryo, which, subsequently, destroys a human body.
Theoretical Perspectives: Conflict Theory
It is important to note that conflict theory mainly focuses on the notion that there is always a some form of completion over limited resources among two or more groups. In the case of abortion, the conflict can be found between women and embryo. The latter party can be represented by regular citizens and men. One might argue that in accordance with this theory, women are being oppressed by patriarchal system, which disregards women’s freedom.
Theoretical Perspectives: Functionalism
Functionalism of functionalist theory primarily focuses macro-oriented view of a society, where stability is achieved through complex interactions of its units. Under this notion, abortion can be either viewed as a dysfunction, which results in killing of unborn humans, or as function of allowing women to exercise their right for freedom. Functionalism addresses the abortion in regards to its usefulness and harm.
Hypothesis is that changes on abortion rates can help to improve abortion access and related disparities in regards to healthcare and family planning. Independent variables include population group abortion rates, and dependent variables include the lifetime incidence of abortion. Sample size is comprised of 8380 women, and research method is quantitative, cohort participant observation.
Findings suggest that abortion rates have declined by 25%, white women have highest access, non-US born citizens and people of color have lowest access to the procedure. Interesting facts include that educated women are less likely to get an abortion, and the majority of abortion seekers had previously given birth (Jones & Jerman, 2017). In addition, poverty is a major predictor of abortion rates meaning higher one’s income, less likely she will get an abortion (Jones & Jerman, 2017).
Hypothesis is focused on restrictive or ban-based legal approach to abortion are ineffective in regards to public health and legal framework. Independent variables are abortion laws, and dependent variables are public health metrics and legal effectiveness. Sample size is comprised of 5 European nations, such as Britain, France, Portugal, Spain, and Italy, and their past colonies. Research method is qualitative cohort historical research method.
On the basis of historical data, banning abortion did not improve public health metrics or were not effective as legal measures. Interesting facts: According to WHO, first trimester abortions can be easily and safely provided by “the primary and community level by trained mid-level providers” (CITE1). Canada’s example shows that decriminalization of abortion leads to major improvements in public health (CITE1). Sweden shows that establishing outstanding healthcare services eliminates post 18-week abortions (CITE1).
Berer, M. (2017). Abortion law and policy around the world: In search of decriminalization. Health and human Rights, 19(1), 13-27.
Blackmun, H. (1976). Roe v. Wade Law Case.
Jones, R. K., & Jeman, J. (2017). Population group abortion rates and lifetime incidence of abortion: United States, 2008-2014. American Journal of Public Health, 107(12), 1904-1909. Web.
Lu, W. (2017). Abortion and Virtue Ethics. Philosophy Faculty Publications 16.