The article under analysis published in 2020 is written by Shieva Nur Azizah Ahmad, Cicih Ayu Yulianti, and Roswita Hasan. The article is concerned with the relationship between Watson’s theory and patient satisfaction. Ahmad et al. (2020) concentrate on the link between one of the ten carative factors, namely helping-trust relationship development and patient satisfaction. The theoretical framework explored in the article in question was developed as far back as the 1980s, but it is still utilized in nursing research (Willis & Leone-Sheehan, 2017).
However, this nursing paradigm was mainly used in western countries, but this theory is becoming more widespread in developing countries as of now (Sadat-Hoseini & Khosropanah, 2017; Wei, 2019). Hence the study implemented by Ahmad et al. (2020) is relevant and can help in the evolvement of nursing practice in Indonesia (where it was conducted), as well as other states of Asia, Latin America, the Near East, and so on.
The relevance of the study is discussed in the introduction section of the article under consideration. Ahmad et al. (2020) claim that Indonesian healthcare facilities continue improving the provided healthcare services. The authors add that the relationship between patient satisfaction and the quality of the care provided by nurses has been studied, but the link between the helping-trust relationship and patient satisfaction remains under-researched (Ahmad et al., 2020). The relationship between the two concepts has been researched in many settings, and direct links have been detected. For instance, Mellawani et al. (2019) found that nurses caring behavior has an impact on patient satisfaction and health outcomes, so this aspect needs detailed exploration, and different programs should be developed for nursing professionals.
Ahmad et al. (2020) highlight the purpose of their study, aiming at determining “the relationship Jean Watson’s theory of helping trust with patient satisfaction inpatient room in the government hospital of Tangerang Regency” (p. 126). The authors do not formulate their hypothesis or research questions, which can be seen as a weakness because the lack of this information makes the research less verifiable.
The authors provide a detailed description of the employed methodology, but important data is still absent. On the one hand, Ahmad et al. (2020) name the design and type of their study, which is a descriptive correlation cross-sectional study. The study aimed at identifying researching a specific population, a cohort of the patients of inpatient rooms in the government hospital of Tangerang Regency. Therefore, the sample size is quite significant as it amounts to 65 participants in a hospital with 80 beds.
The non-probability sampling method based on purposive sampling technique was used in the study under analysis. The exclusion criteria were patients younger than 20 years old, patients who could not read or write, those who were unwilling to participate, and those who were mentally unwell. The demographic data are properly described with the use of tables and associated textual explanations, making this information easy to follow. The instruments are mentioned, and one of them is described in detail with the necessary data for validation. Ahmad et al. (2020) note that patient satisfaction was measured with the help of a 15-item questionnaire by Nursalam in the study conducted in 2013, which can be validated or reviewed as the authors provide a clear reference to the source.
On the other hand, the authors do not define variables in a proper manner. They only mention that the link between patient satisfaction and the helping-trust relationship will be explored. The other instrument utilized to address the study objective is not fully described or validated. Ahmad et al. (2020) state that a 20-item helping-trust questionnaire was used and validated by the researchers during the validity test. Although the information regarding validity tests is given, the questionnaires are not available, which makes this instrument use questionable. The provision of an appendix with a sample of the questionnaire would enhance the credibility of the study. For instance, in a study by Durgun Ozan and Okumus (2017), the researchers operationalize the carative factors to measure the effectiveness of the program based on Watson’s theory.
Moreover, the authors do not describe the theoretical framework that guides their study. The concept of the helping-trust relationship is mentioned with reference to another research without any details. At the same time, the questionnaires developed by the researchers were based on the theory, so it is quite critical to pay appropriate attention to the helping-trust relationship as described by Jean Watson. More so, the purpose of the study is to explore the relationship between this concept and patient satisfaction, so the helping-trust relationship requires a detailed analysis.
It is noteworthy that the results of the study are properly presented with a considerable amount of detail. Ahmad et al. (2020) provide data in a table and explain the given information below. Sound statistical tools (Chi-square test) are utilized, and the authors mention the p-value of the results, which is an important element of validating data. The authors argue that the quality of nursing care in general, and helping-trust relationships, as a component of this care, have a positive effect on patient satisfaction.
These findings are similar to the results of the study by Durgun Ozan and Okumus (2017), in which the implementation of the entire framework rather than one of its elements was conducted. It is necessary to add that the article in question includes a considerable number of references to reputable and up-to-date sources. Although the article does not contain a separate section with a literature review, the introduction includes a review of some of the most relevant studies. The only exclusion is associated with the description of Watson’s framework, which is rather inappropriate.
The contribution of the study under analysis is significant as the authors explore the impact of a single factor of Watson’s theoretical framework, while other researchers concentrate on the use of the entire theory rather than its components (Im et al., 2020; Durgun Ozan & Okumus, 2017). For instance, Durgun Ozan and Okumus (2017) evaluate the effectiveness of a treatment program for infertile women based on Watson’s ten carative factors, while Im et al. (2020) examined the effectiveness of the Korean version of Watson’s framework.
The study by Ahmad et al. (2020) contributes to the development of clinical practice in Indonesia. The researchers provide insights into the extent to which one of the carative factors, as defined by Watson, impact patient satisfaction and the overall provision of care. The authors note that the use of Watson’s framework in general and the development of helping-trust relationship are beneficial for healthcare facilities. This study can also have implications for hospitals worldwide as these facilities can use and adapt the introduced framework. The study also contributes to the current knowledge base on Watson’s framework. Ahmad et al. (2020) employ certain tools (questionnaires and Watson’s model) to conduct their research. These instruments can be validated and improved, as well as further utilized in other studies.
As far as the limitations of the study, Ahmad et al. (2020) do not name any limitations to their research. These may include small sample size and the involvement of a single healthcare facility. The quality of the study is rather limited due to the use of instruments that need further validation and the lack of details. The study can hardly be replicated, so the findings and conclusions provided by Ahmad et al. (2020) need additional analysis.
It is necessary to note that the authors do not provide any information regarding possible areas for future research, which is another weakness of the article in question. At that, future studies can involve more Indonesian healthcare facilities and a larger sample. It is also necessary to improve the methodology and validate the questionnaires used in this research. Finally, it is possible to create specific guidelines and programs based on the present study to improve the quality of care provided in Indonesian hospitals.
In conclusion, it is possible to note that the article under analysis contributes to nursing research and practice but has quite serious imperfections. Some methodological flaws, and the lack of details in the article, are the major weaknesses of the study under analysis. However, it is still an important contribution because it may become the basis for further research and the development of new nursing programs for Indonesian healthcare practitioners.
Ahmad, S.N.A., Yulianti, C.A., & Hasan, R. (2020). The relationship between Jean Watson’s theory of helping trust with patient satisfaction. Nurse and Health: Jurnal Keperawatan, 9(2), 124-132. Web.
Durgun Ozan, Y., & Okumus, H. (2017). Effects of nursing care based on Watson’s theory of human caring on anxiety, distress, and coping when infertility treatment fails: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Caring Sciences, 6(2), 95-109.
Im, S. B., Cho, M. K., & Heo, M. L. (2020). Validity and reliability of the Korean version of the Watson caritas patient score. Journal of Nursing Research, 28(2), 1-7. Web.
Mellawani, Yetti, K., & Nuraini, T. (2019). Caring behavior of nurses is linked to the implementation of bedside handover between shifts. Enfermería Clínica, 29(Supplement 2), 439-444. Web.
Sadat-Hoseini, A. S., & Khosropanah, A. H. (2017). Comparing the concept of caring in Islamic perspective with Watson and Parse’s nursing theories. Iranian Journal of Nursing and Midwifery Research, 22(2), 83-90. Web.
Wei, H., Fazzone, P. A., Sitzman, K., & Hardin, S. R. (2019). The current intervention studies based on Watson’s theory of human caring: A systematic review. International Journal for Human Caring, 23(1), 4-22.
Willis, D. G. & Leone-Sheehan, D. M. (2017). Watson’s philosophy and theory of transpersonal caring. In M. R. Alligood (Ed.), Nursing theorists and their work – e-book (pp. 66-79). Elsevier Health Sciences.