Epidemiology is the study of health outcomes and diseases in large populations. In epidemiology, individuals are considered to be members of a larger community. It is the study of health-related states and events (not just diseases) in specific populations, and the science underpins it (U.S. Census Bureau, 2018). It is an endeavor that is scientific, systematic, and data-driven. Applying this research to the management of health problems is the second aspect of this investigation.
Brooklyn had 2,736,074 residents in the 2020 census. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, New York City’s population grew by 2.2% between 2010 and 2019. Brooklyn had a population of 30.7 percent of New York City, 33.5 percent of Long Island (7,701,172), and 13.2 percent of New York State. Brooklyn’s population was estimated at 2,648,403 in 2020. The 2019 census estimates 958,567 households with an average of 2.66 people. In 2019, there were 1,065,399 housing units with a $1,426 median gross rent. Brooklyn’s building permits increased by 9,696 in the 2019 census estimates program. Brooklyn’s non-Hispanic white population was 35.4%, black or African American was 26.7%, Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander was 0.1%, and Hispanic or Latino of any race was 18.9%, according to the 2020 American Community Survey. According to the 2010 U.S. Census, Brooklyn had 42.8% Whites, including 35.7 percent non-Hispanic Whites, 34.3 percent Blacks, including 32.9 percent non-Hispanic Blacks, 10.5 percent Asian, 0.0 percent Native American, 3.0 percent Multi-racial Americans, and 8.8 percent other races. Brooklyn’s Hispanic/Latino population was 19.8% (U.S. Census Bureau, 2018). In 2010, some Brooklyn neighborhoods had ethnic and religious segregation. While the southwest half of Brooklyn is predominantly Hispanic/Latin, the northeast is predominantly black and Hispanic.
It is legal to use marijuana for recreational and medicinal purposes in Brooklyn. Products containing up to 0.85 ounces (24 grams) of concentrated cannabis can be purchased by adults over 21. Marijuana possession is legal for adults over 21 who own their own homes. Regulations governing home grow cannabis will allow residents to grow up to twelve mature plants and three immature plants at a time. For a long time, possession of small amounts of marijuana was illegal (County Health Rankings and Roadmaps, 2018). In some cases, cannabis is used for medical purposes. Prior marijuana-related criminal records in Brooklyn were deleted due to the legislation. Employers in Brooklyn State will no longer conduct drug tests on job applicants or current employees or treat those who use marijuana outside of work differently. It implied increased criminal activities and adverse effects among the concerned population. Its use was enhanced by factors such as homelessness and unemployment.
Patient identification and treatment referral using SBIRT (patient identification and referral to treatment) is an evidence-based approach to identifying patients who use alcohol or other drugs and are at high risk of becoming addicted to those substances. It is the mission of SBIRT to lessen and eliminate the harm that these activities do to people’s health and well-being and reduce the number of accidents and injuries they cause. Those who use risky substances and are at risk of developing a substance use disorder (SUD) should be identified using this evidence-based tool, which has proven to be accurate and reliable (SUD).
Alcohol and other drug abusers can be identified using SBIRT (Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment). SBIRT’s work positively impacts people’s health and safety by reducing and preventing disease, accidents, and injuries. Using this scientifically validated tool, one can determine whether or not a person is at high risk of developing a substance use disorder based on their history of high-risk substance use (SUD). It is possible to conduct SBIRT in a wide range of environments (Wamsley et al., 2018). SBIRT starts with a quick screening to see if anyone is abusing alcohol or other substances at risky or dependent consumption levels. SBIRT can be used by physicians, nurses, social workers, health educators, and paraprofessionals to assist people who want to change their behaviors.
SBIRT employs short, validated, and universal pre-screening and screening tools. The Southwest Montana Community Health Center in Butte, Montana, employs SBIRT as part of its SUD treatment and screening program. By filling out these short surveys, professionals can quickly and easily talk to patients about their substance use behavior sensitively SBIRT views patients as the experts in their own lives, respecting their process of behavioral change and seeing them as the ones wand straightforwardly who know best what changes they want to make in their lives. These techniques are used to assist a patient in considering the potential harm that drinking and drug abuse may cause to their health and determine whether behavior change is possible. Motivational Interviewing skills enable healthcare professionals to discuss these sensitive topics with patients without being intrusive or alienating them.
Addicts who are transitioning from primary prevention to more intensive treatment can benefit from this type of intervention. This organization’s main objective is to improve community health outcomes by intervening early and referring patients to appropriate treatment when necessary. SBIRT’s primary goal is to educate patients about the dangers of substance abuse and help them locate appropriate treatment if necessary. Alcohol and drug abuse, depression, anxiety, child safety, and tobacco use are among the conditions screened for. More than 36,000 pre-screenings and more than 21,000 full screenings were performed by participating practices. SBIRT best practices in primary care are identified using qualitative analysis. SBIRT procedures should be clearly defined and communicated to all referral partners. SBIRT training needs to be an ongoing progressive, and continuous process.
SBIRT should be incorporated into the primary care office workflow when a pre-screening instrument is available. Built into the EHR, SBIRT should be utilized (Sarvet et al., 2018). Patients with substance abuse and mental health issues can be identified and treated early on, thanks to SBIRT. Pragmatic best practices can help primary care providers improve their practice’s ability to develop, implement, and maintain SBIRT. A physician is not required to conduct the screening. It is possible to receive personalized feedback and advice while being tested for a wide range of drug use using SBIRT technology. It has been found that simple feedback on patients’ risky behaviors significantly impacts their future behavior.
SBIRT does not necessitate a great deal of prior knowledge or instruction from the user. Nursing, social work, and health education professionals are all capable of implementing this strategy. A wide range of patient populations and the entire healthcare system can benefit from SBIRT. In the treatment of alcoholism, SBIRT, which has been proven effective, should be used (Wamsley et al., 2018). Efficacy in treating other types of substance abuse disorders has only been studied in a few studies. People with substance use disorders (SUDs) involving marijuana and other stimulants may benefit from SBIRT. Community resources such as local clinics and playing grounds can be used to implement mitigation strategies enhanced at tackling issues of drug and substance abuse. The clinic, as a resourceful facility, can be accessed by phone and email systems. The local playing grounds can be accessed by the use of posters that relate to handling issues that are related to the use of drugs and substances, especially marijuana. There can be referral forms used to achieve a wide-felt influence to address adversities in the topics of interest.
Accessibility, affordability, acceptability, and availability are four factors that can help Brooklyn’s healthcare industry grow and achieve its goal of providing the general public with substance abuse mitigation services: Public-private sector cooperation, insurance companies’ participation in healthcare investment, and medical professionals’ involvement are all required to meet this demand (Sarvet et al., 2018). Adequate access to healthcare but poor-quality medical professionals who are also readily available and accessible may lead to a lack in the utilization of health services and underachievement of healthcare outcomes.
Heavily used in this country, marijuana is the most common illegal drug. Marijuana use increases among adults of all ages, sexes, and even pregnant women. The general public’s perception of the hazards of marijuana use is also changing (County Health Rankings and Roadmaps, 2018). The number of teenagers who do not think of marijuana use as a risky activity is rising. A substance use disorder is characterized by recurrent alcohol or drug use that leads to clinically and functionally significant impairment, such as health issues, disability, and the inability to meet primary responsibilities at work, school, or home (SUD). Addiction to drugs can range from occasional use to an all-out dependency. Drug screening, anticipatory guidance, educational information about drugs of abuse, brief intervention referrals to treatment for substance abuse, and ongoing follow-up are critical roles for the medical provider to perform.
Numerous adverse effects of marijuana use have been documented, some of which have been proven beyond a reasonable doubt. In the same way that other substances of abuse can lead to addiction, marijuana is no exception. An SBIRT-trained professional will then use Motivational Interviewing skills to deliver a brief intervention to assist the patient immediately following the screening. Patients and healthcare professionals have a five- to fifteen-minute conversation to help the patient gain insight and awareness about their substance use and encourage the patient’s desire to change their behavior. For those with more severe substance abuse issues requiring more intensive treatment, SBIRT can recommend. SBIRT-trained healthcare professionals are trained to support and guide these individuals in obtaining the appropriate treatment and care if the patient desires this specialty treatment.
As a result of the drug’s intoxicating effects, one may not be able to think or move clearly, which can lead to undesirable outcomes. Adolescent marijuana use can alter brain chemistry, putting one’s academic, professional, and social aspirations at risk. Pharmacological properties are important, but so are ease of use and social acceptability of the drug. However, the greatest burden of disease caused by drug use is not because legal drugs are more dangerous but rather because their legal status allows for a broader distribution throughout society (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2020). Marijuana legalization is likely to increase the number of people who use the drug, which will lead to an increase in the number of people who suffer negative health consequences. Identifying and treating patients with substance abuse and mental health issues before they develop costly symptoms is now possible, thanks to SBIRT. Addicts who are transitioning from primary prevention to more intensive treatment can benefit from this type of intervention. This organization’s main objective is to improve community health outcomes by intervening early and referring patients to appropriate treatment when necessary. SBIRT’s primary goal is to educate patients about the dangers of substance abuse and help them locate appropriate treatment if necessary.
The community demographics of Brooklyn consist of population statistics of 3,736,074 residents. Female makes up a slightly bigger pie of the total. Most of them hold a high school degree, 82.4%. The poverty rate stands at 17.8%, which is relatively high. Most of the population is made up of youths, who, due to factors of illiteracy and poverty, resort to drug and substance abuse. The epidemiological data of the Brooklyn, NY community is characterized by more than 75% return and 25-50% returning excellent health status, with drug overdose deaths at 13. Violent crimes stand at 586 in the state of Brooklyn, with a high prevalence in poverty. Adolescent substance abuse is more common and has more severe long-term consequences than that of children or adults because of the rapid biopsychosocial development of adolescents. Adolescent substance abuse disorders are associated with neuropathology, which has been studied in recent years to understand better the neurobiological processes that contribute to adolescent substance use risk (Sarvet et al., 2018). Evidence-based interventions to treat adolescent substance use disorders have been developed through research on prevention, screening, assessment, and treatment. The significant public health burden associated with adolescent substance use disorders necessitates additional research to improve outcomes.
As a result of the SAMHSA SBIRT program, new services for people with substance use disorders can be offered in the United States (County Health Rankings and Roadmaps, 2018). There are a variety of services available, from early intervention for non-dependent substance users to referrals for more serious cases to specialized treatment facilities. In the last few years, there have been significant strides in understanding adolescent substance abuse. Long-term neuroimaging studies are beginning to shed light on the neurobiology that underlies adolescents’ propensity for substance use and progression to substance use disorders, as well as the potential long-term consequences of substance abuse in adolescents. A wide range of prevention programs has been implemented in various settings, with varying degrees of success.
Teens at high risk of developing severe substance-related problems can be identified using these new screening and assessment tools, and evidence-based treatment approaches effectively reduce substance use and related problems in young people. Even when the most effective evidence-based treatments are used, adolescents with substance use disorders rarely achieve long-term abstinence, indicating that more research is needed to understand better and address this critical public health issue. The advancement of both medical care and scientific research will only be possible if one focuses on the health of the entire population. Improved patient outcomes and lower service costs are two ways it helps to improve clinical treatment for specific groups.
A lack of coordination between technological advances and clinical use has occurred in the past. Due to the current situation, it has been difficult to coordinate medical services, which has resulted in treatment outcomes that are not ideal. On the other hand, population health management helps healthcare providers overcome these obstacles by increasing patient satisfaction and lowering medical costs. The implications of SBRIT are that patients who are at risk of developing a substance abuse disorder should receive preventive care from both public and private health insurance plans. To save money on health care, SBIRT can identify problems at a more early stage, thus reducing treatment time and reducing the risk of costly comorbidities as a result of long-term substance abuse.
County Health Rankings and Roadmaps. (2018). Explore rankings. Web.
Sarvet, A. L., Wall, M. M., Fink, D. S., Greene, E., Le, A., Boustead, A. E.,… & Hasin, D. S. (2018). Medical marijuana laws and adolescent marijuana use in the United States: A systematic review and meta‐analysis. Addiction, 113(6), 1003-1016. Web.
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). (2020). Behavioral health barometer, volume 6. Web.
U.S. Census Bureau. (2018). State and county QuickFacts. Web.
Wamsley, M., Satterfield, J. M., Curtis, A., Lundgren, L., & Satre, D. D. (2018). Alcohol and Drug Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) Training and Implementation: Perspectives from 4 Health Professions. Journal of addiction medicine, 12(4), 262-272.