Stress is a common human experience, and Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) is a treatment practice that combines meditation and yoga to manage it. It is firmly rooted in the modern era and was created by Dr. Jon Kabat-Zinn in the 1970s. It is a strategy for lowering social anxiety through increased competence and better regulation of feelings (Khoo et al., 2019). Unlike other health programs, MBSR focuses on more than simply physical and mental well-being; it also includes spiritual training, stability, nonjudgmental awareness, and the exploratory use of many activities. One of its goals is to promote mindfulness among its patients to lessen the emotional disturbance and arousal that contribute to the widespread rise in stress levels among people today and make it harder for them to stay healthy. Participants must attend weekly meetings and receive training in yoga and mindful thinking over eight weeks.
The stress reduction program can benefit patients with anxiety, depression, anger management issues, high blood pressure, and insomnia. The victims of the accidents suffered increased health and mental health difficulties, with the risk of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) being particularly high among those with lower incomes (Khoo et al., 2019). In this context, cognitive-based therapies have been the evidence-based intervention modalities that have been used the most commonly in treating post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The method derived from this framework can be altered to cater to the specific requirements of each persona and circumstance. Depending on the magnitude of the traumatic experience, victims of interpersonal trauma and those affected by national traumatic events may have the same or very different needs.
Jon Zinn initially established the Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) program at the Massachusetts Medical Center, which is now one of the University Medical Centers. It was the impetus for expanding and developing the MBSR in hospitals worldwide. Zinn has been able to give mindfulness training and research in learning facilities due to the elements of further study that he has conducted, which has permitted the expansion of the program internationally (Querstret et al., 2020). The Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) program is a program that involves body scanning and assessment of the result from the method and procedure of body scanning. The body scanning procedure happens during the first four weeks of the program, trying to figure out the issue. It will then make it possible to correct the existing health condition that has been present.
Research provides evidence of the efficacy of therapeutic interventions, which may then be used to enhance public health policies and programs aimed at rehabilitating people who have undergone traumatic events. Different mindfulness-based interventions will be compared to evaluate mental health programs that address traumatic experiences. The statement of purpose is to examine the efficacy of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) therapy in treating chronic conditions like trauma (Khoo et al., 2019). I choose to write about this subject since it is the line of work I am most interested in and because it is simple to explain and discuss.
According to Rechtschaffen (2021), the more one engages in mindful practice, the more one can learn to live in the moment without dwelling on the past or worrying about the future. In addition, Rechtschaffen argued that practicing mindfulness helps one develop a reflective mindset. The essence of mindfulness is that it facilitates calm, receptivity, and awareness of the significance of the present moment and the consequences of one’s activities. When this realization comes about, a new way of being and teaching might develop (Rechtschaffen, 2014). According to Rechtschaffen (2021), mindfulness can help one “get both context and perspective.” According to the author, practicing mindfulness can bring about a sense of serenity that helps one have more agency over their lives.
Mindfulness-based cognitive processing therapies have shown promising results in preventing patients from falling back into a depressive state. Increasing the amount of mindful conditioning produced and improving results answers the hypotheses of the two questions; first, could an improvement in the mindfulness condition (as measured by the Mindfulness Attention Awareness Scale, or MAAS) assist veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)? Second, does the Stroop Interference outcome change by increasing the mindfulness condition? Students from colleges and universities who were over 18 and enrolled as undergraduates voluntarily participated in the study as part of their education. Within the mandatory component of the course, neither ages nor genders were taken into account or recorded in any way. Individual variations in the baseline mindfulness attributes did not drive the Stroop Interference scores. Definitive randomized controlled trials must be conducted to assess PTSD symptoms and measure possible results. At this point, the possibility that symptoms of PTSD will improve is still speculative.
Stress results from a person’s inability to respond correctly to emotional or physical dangers, regardless of whether those threats are real or imagined. A sense of alert and an adrenaline rush are signs and symptoms of stress. Other signs and symptoms of stress include tiredness and irritation, muscular spasm, an inability to concentrate, and a variety of physiological reactions such as a headache and an elevated heart rate. In September of 2007, the American Psychological Association conducted an online poll to determine the levels of stress experienced by 1,848 adult participants. According to the findings, 79 percent of respondents concurred with the statement that “stress is a reality of life (Simons & Kursawe, 2019).” One–third of the participants said they were under extreme stress, and nearly one-seventh said they were under their highest degree of stress 15 or more days per month.
Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy is one treatment option for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) that should be examined. This is because it has increased patients’ ability to understand and cope with their condition. Even though relatively little is known about the efficacy of mindfulness for people with PTSD, particularly military veterans with PTSD, there are two key components of mindfulness (Skeffington et al., 2017). These components are awareness, which is managed through intentional control of attention to present experience, and acceptance, which is a willingness to experience a variety of thoughts and emotions without judgment. Accepting one’s traumatic experience in a way that is free of judgment is generally seen as the essential first step in treating PTSD, and these two components go hand in hand with that process.
This literature review’s limitations include the reliance on recently disseminated examination, the availability of these investigations using the technique depicted in the inquiry system, and the adaptability of these examinations with the standards of the determination technique. Some of the first 22 investigations that were appropriate to this literature review were rejected for tolerance with the determination standards.
One hundred thirty-two undergraduate students from the United Kingdom College of Applied Psychology were the participants in this study (ACAP). Everyone who took part in the research had to be at least 18 years old and gave their time voluntarily for the studies they were involved in. The participant’s ability to go forward in the unit of study was unaffected by their level of participation or lack thereof. To protect the participants’ anonymity and maintain the integrity of the integral unit of study, neither the participants’ ages nor genders were recorded.
This experiment’s major task was based on the classic Stroop test, and it was modeled after it. PsyToolkit, an online platform for the presentation of experiments, was the medium through which the digital version of the Stroop Task was delivered. The words RED, GREEN, YELLOW, and BLUE, served as the stimuli, and they were presented in either congruent colored ink (Congruent Trials) or incongruent colored ink (Incongruent Trials) (Incongruent Trials) (Simons & Kursawe, 2019). The participant was given three minutes to react before the text disappeared from the screen. The participant had a maximum timeout of three thousand milliseconds. The words were displayed in the middle of the screen against a black background.
During the five-minute mini-intervention, an audio recording of mindfulness meditation for five minutes taken from the Stop, Breathe and Think app was played. The control Mini-Intervention condition consisted of watching a motivational lecture for four minutes and thirty-three seconds. This Mini-Intervention condition did not generate mindfulness but approximated the same audio-visual environment as the other Mini-Intervention condition (Querstret et al., 2020). Students underwent the Mindfulness Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) to account for previous mindfulness-based practice. This 15-item scale examines trait mindfulness and the overall inclination to demonstrate receptive attention to events.
Participants were instructed to access the Qualtrics survey link using the PSYC1032 class space they had created for themselves. Each class initially received the instructions verbally, then at the beginning of the experiment, they were provided again in written format. The participants performed the Mini-Intervention Phase after they had read through the instructions. A random assignment to either the Mindfulness or Control interventions was performed at the class level, and four classes participated in each of the two conditions. Participants in the Mindfulness Condition were instructed to sit quietly with their eyes closed and their arms relaxed while listening to the Mindfulness Meditation Recording using their headphones and following the directions provided on the recording. The participants in the Control condition were also instructed to maintain a quiet sitting position, keep their eyes open, and listen to the inspirational talk through their headphones.
The trials were performed in an arbitrary sequence, with 80 conducted (40 for each congruency condition). After the experiment, participants were given three scores (Congruent RT, Incongruent RT, and Stroop interference) that they were instructed to input into the Qualtrics survey. After that, the experiment was finished by having each participant finish the MAAS. Immediately following the conclusion of the experiment, the goal of the study was explained in detail to the participants in the study. The students were given copies of everything that was presented to them to offer them the opportunity to experience both sets of materials.
All data were checked for normality before the statistical tests were run. The results from 126 participants (n control = 65, n mindfulness = 61) were used for further analysis after missing, incomplete, or inaccurate data was accounted for. By deducting each participant’s average reaction time for Congruent Trials from their average reaction time for Incongruent Trials, it was able to quantify Stroop Interference (the extent to which a participant’s response time was disrupted by the presence of an incongruent color/word pairing) (Simons & Kursawe, 2019). Stroop Interference was calculated as the average incongruent and congruent reaction time. Stroop Interference scores were collected from each participant, and group averages for the two Mini-Intervention Conditions were determined.
Initial descriptive analyses demonstrated that the mean Stroop Interference in the Mindfulness Meditation Condition was lower than the mean Stroop Interference in the Control Condition (M=115.47, SD=68.08). This finding was supported by the fact that the difference between the two conditions was statistically significant. The trend found in the descriptive statistics was borne out by the inferential statistics, which showed that the level of Stroop Interference in the Mindfulness Meditation Condition was significantly lower than in the Control Stress Condition (p.05) (Querstret et al., 2020). These inferential statistics are not reported or discussed here because they are consistent with the trend found in the descriptive statistics. This implies that participants in the Mindfulness Meditation Condition were considerably less impacted by incongruent color-word pairings than participants in the Control Stress Condition
There was no significant difference in trait mindfulness skills between the individuals who participated in the Mindfulness Meditation Condition (M= 54.97, SD= 13.31) and those who participated in the Control Stress Condition (M= 55.80, SD= 13.34), according to the findings of the analysis of the MAAS survey. The connection between Stroop Interference Scores and MAAS scores was 0.05, which is statistically insignificant (p=.575). This suggests that individual differences in mindfulness at the beginning of the study were not the cause of the differences in scores on the Stroop Interference task.
Mindfulness practice has been strongly linked to a rise in collective focus. Neuroscientists have employed different kinds of attention demonstrated by neural networks to prove that MBSR does help people. The software is used to demonstrate human progress in neural networks. It has been a big help in keeping people alert and ready to respond to important stimuli as they come up (Boyd et al., 2018). Focusing on a certain group of inputs at a time is how the oriental networks are utilized to pay attention to the modality.
To help with conflict detection, the executive control network must weigh competing inputs and make a choice. All three networks contribute significantly to human health and function, but they do so uniquely (Boyd et al., 2018). As demonstrated by trainees’ enhanced performance on ongoing discrimination tasks throughout the program’s three-month training period, the attention-boosting effects of this intervention are clear.
This research examined the effects of the mindfulness condition intervention (using MAAS) on the STROOP outcome. Increases in mindful attention were more pronounced in the mindfulness condition than in the motivational speech condition. In this study, researchers found that teaching mindfulness to participants before administering the STROOP exam led to more positive results. This adds to the preexisting data that spiritual well-being mitigates the intensity of PTSD symptoms and supports the premise that increased mindfulness conditioning provides improved effects.
Mindfulness as a treatment for PTSD symptoms emphasizes a welcoming and inquisitive approach toward all aspects of experience, even negative ones. Both emotional numbing and hypervigilance can be mitigated via the consistent, nonjudgmental attention paid to one’s feelings. Mindfulness training lessens internal monologue and reveals how one’s views about a traumatic memory affect their experience of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (Simons & Kursawe, 2019). Those with PTSD often self-reflect, focusing on and assessing the thoughts and beliefs that have emerged in response to the traumatic event. If you practice mindfulness regularly, you may be less likely to try to ignore or push away distracting ideas. Suppressing unwanted thoughts has the paradoxical effect of increasing re-experience of the traumatic event in those with post-traumatic stress disorder (Skeffington et al., 2017). All thoughts, including negative ones, are temporary mental experiences that patients practice mindfulness to learn to accept and welcome.
Mindfulness-based therapies for PTSD patients are currently being tested in independent clinical trials. For instance, one study compared two 8-week telemedicine treatments for PTSD (mindfulness and PTSD psycho-education) based on a sample of veterans with PTSD. Initial results suggest that veterans with PTSD can benefit from a brief exposure to mindfulness techniques (Skeffington et al., 2017). Rarely is their empirical evidence in favor of adding mindfulness training to existing empirical treatments for post-traumatic stress disorder. Both cognitive behavioral therapy (CPT) and mindfulness training, on their own or in combination, can potentially enhance outcomes for people with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).
The utilization of a mindfulness-based approach as a treatment for PTSD should be emphasized as a key reason for future research efforts in this area. There are still several significant questions for future research to be answered: Is it beneficial to practice mindfulness before beginning CPT? Is it possible for those with PTSD to separate themselves from the intrusive thoughts and feelings associated with the disorder by re-experiencing the symptoms? Is mindfulness skills during therapy assist the patient in engaging fully? Does the success of mindfulness-based intervention depend on the type of trauma (for example, sexual abuse or conflict) or the clinical population (for example, veterans, adults, or children) being treated? (Skeffington et al., 2017). It is essential to understand psychological treatments better and improve them through clinical studies investigating and evaluating the advantages of CPT combining mindfulness-based modules.
The Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) program is a straightforward and economical approach to alleviating the symptoms of stress, including anxiety and depression. In upcoming studies and research, the primary area of focus is the relationship between particular stress sources and whether or not victims should be in contact with therapists. Cohort studies should be developed in the future for checkup procedures during the study and drug treatment groups as controls.
The degree to which an evaluation tool generates consistent and trustworthy results is referred to as its reliability. The type of reliability used in this research was internal consistency reliability. This type of reliability indicates that the questions asked in a research study are utilized to analyze the response against a given idea or hypothesis. Various questions that test the same hypothesis ought to provide consistent results. Information obtained from social and health national registers was linked in this nursing quantitative research piece by a special individual distinguishing proof number given to each participant. Other unusual identifiers that could not be traced were substituted to ensure that the individual recognized proof numbers would not be discovered throughout the inspection. This was an excellent method because the participants in question felt uncomfortable and highly disrespectful if they realized their problems were known everywhere. This prevented them from having those feelings.
Validity is the authenticity or credibility of the research; in this research, the type of validity is utilized as internal validity. It determines whether the instrument or measures that were used in the research measured whatever it was that they were supposed to measure. According to the findings of the quantitative nursing research article, the research can be considered reliable because of the procedure that was used to collect the data. This includes the methods used to define the study population, the methods used to determine the components that contribute to stress and trauma, and the findings of those approaches.
Information regarding the background of previous instances of trauma treatments and programs. This suggests that the data collection process is efficient and contributes significantly to the overall validity of the research. In this area, how statistical studies are carried out also plays a role. For instance, stratified investigations were carried out to equalize depression exposures. In addition, they were carried out to investigate the effects of anxiety, stress, and traumatic experiences among adults. Additionally, sensitivity analyses were carried out using various techniques; consequently, the overall results were deemed genuine. This is because the procedures used to arrive at those results give each person confidence in the article itself.
The study methodology’s strength is the sampling method, which supplied more information to explain complicated topics in a topic-specific and cost-effective manner. The reason for this is the low level of organizational complexities present. Due to the limited size of the samples, massive infrastructure is unnecessary. On the other hand, this study’s lack of participant interaction and in-depth interviews is a significant limitation that could have skewed the results.
Boyd, J. E., Lanius, R. A., & McKinnon, M. C. (2018). Mindfulness-based treatments for post-traumatic stress disorder: A review of the treatment literature and neurobiological evidence. Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience.
Khoo, E. L., Small, R., Cheng, W., Hatchard, T., Glynn, B., Rice, D. B., & Poulin, P. A. (2019). Comparative evaluation of group-based mindfulness-based stress reduction and cognitive behavioural therapy for the treatment and management of chronic pain: A systematic review and network meta-analysis. Evidence-Based Mental Health, 22(1), 26-35.
Querstret, D., Morison, L., Dickinson, S., Cropley, M., & John, M. (2020). Mindfulness-based stress reduction and mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for psychological health and well-being in nonclinical samples: A systematic review and meta-analysis. International Journal of Stress Management, 27(4), 394.
Rechtschaffen, T. H., & Kapoor, D. A. (2021). Health Policy and Advocacy. Urologic Clinics, 48(2), 251-258.
Simons, M., & Kursawe, A. L. (2019). Metacognitive therapy for post-traumatic stress disorder in youth: a feasibility study. Frontiers in Psychology, 10, 264.
Skeffington, P. M., Rees, C. S., & Mazzucchelli, T. (2017). Trauma exposure and post‐traumatic stress disorder within fire and emergency services in Western Australia. Australian Journal of Psychology, 69(1), 20-28.